How to Calculate Peak To Peak Voltage

In this piece, we’ll be revealing how to calculate peak to peak voltage. You will also learn about RMS, the difference between RMS and Peak-to-Peak voltage, and everything associated with Peak-to-Peak voltage in sine waves. 

Read on.

What is Peak voltage?

Peak voltage simply means the highest point or the highest value of voltage for any voltage waveform. 

What is Peak to Peak Voltage?

Peak to Peak voltage in alternating current (AC) simply describes the difference between the positive and negative peaks. This voltage waveform is usually measured from the upper part of the waveform known as the crest, down towards the bottom part of the waveform known as the trough. 

Simply put, peak-to-peak voltage represents the full vertical length of a voltage waveform from the uppermost part to the very bottom part. 

RMS Voltage to Peak To Peak Voltage Formula

To convert RMS Voltage to Peak to Peak Voltage, do the following:

VP-P = 2 × √2 × VRMS

Therefore, peak to peak voltage equals twice the square root of two times RMS. 

How To Use The Equation

Let’s take, for example; we want to calculate the peak to peak voltage using 75V RMS Voltage using that formula. 

VP-P = 2 × √2 × 75 V

The RMS Voltage to Peak to Peak Voltage equals;

VP-P = 212.13 V

How to Calculate Peak to Peak Voltage of a Sine Wave

Here is the short answer;

Vp−p = 2√2


Usually, the RMS (root mean square) of a sine wave equals the amplitude divided by the square of the two. You can get this value with this formula;



The peak to peak voltage, in this case, is 2x the wave amplitude. This is due to the measuring of the tip of the crest to the tip of the trough. 

Vp−p = 2a

These two equations can be arranged as this;

VRMS⋅ √2=a 

Vp= 2 ⋅ (VRMS⋅√2)

Vp=VRMS⋅ 2√2

Then, the RMS will be multiplied by twice the square root of two. The result is;

2√2 = 2.8284271247….

Interestingly, this process also works reversely, provided you can measure the peak to peak voltage. Afterward, you divide the value of the peak to peak voltage by the same factor. The result will give you the RMS voltage of a sine wave. 


  • Vp represents the maximum value of a particular function as measured from point zero to the volt level. 
  • Vp-p; represents the full voltage between the negative and positive peaks of the waveform. This also represents the sum of the overall magnitude of positive and negative peaks.
  • VRMS represents the root mean square of the effective value of the waveform

What is RMS (Root Mean Square)?

Mathematically, RMS represents the root mean square (RMS) and is described as the square root of the mean square. This could be the squares of a group of numbers or the arithmetic mean. In some cases, RMS is also referred to as the quadratic mean, and it is a particular case of a specialized mean with an exponent of figure 2. 

The RMS value represents the square root of the average value in a squared function of the instantaneous values. VRMS or IRMS symbolically defines RMS.

In order to determine the value of RMS in an AC wave, we can carry out the following mathematical operations;

  • Determine the square of the waveform function (a sine wave in most cases)
  • Average the function resulting from step 1 above
  • Determine the square root of the function from step 2 above. 

What is the Difference between RMS and Peak to Peak Voltage?

The difference between RMS and Peak to Peak Voltage is that the amplitude of RMS is a derived one, while the peak to peak voltage is the difference between the maximum values in the positive and negative directions. 

What’s the RMS value for 6V?

The RMS value for 6V is 4.242640687119285


Using the formula V0


This equals 6/√2 = 4.242640687119285

Therefore, the RMS of a 6V equals is 4.242640687119285.

What’s the Peak Voltage of 230V?

The peak voltage of 230V is 325V


Using this formula;


This equals 230√2 

    = 230 * 1.414

= 325.22V

Wrap Up

  • The RMS Voltage to Peak to Peak Voltage Formula and the steps involved
  • How to calculate peak to peak voltage of a sine wave
  • RMS (Root Mean Square)
  • The Difference between RMS and Peak To Peak Voltage?
  • The RMS value for 6V
  • The peak voltage of 230V

With these, we believe that you have gained more knowledge regarding peak to peak voltage and RMS. 

Ying Xu

Graduated from the University of Kansas with an Aerospace Engineering degree & served 4 years as an US Air Force officer. Experienced with basic survival skills, weapon system security,  technical disaster recovery, and system troubleshooting

Recent Posts